1 Unknown function – HpiU4 AmbU4 – - – - 100 Unknown function HpiU5 – - – - – - – Unknown function HpiU6 HpiU6 – WelU6 WelU6 WelU6 – 94.2 Unknown function – - – WelU7 – - – - Unknown function – - – WelU8 PF-02341066 purchase WelU8 WelU8 – 97.9 Methytransferase genes The wel gene clusters identified in WI HT-29-1, HW IC-52-3 and FS PCC9431 contain three genes with homology to different methyltransferases (welM1, welM2 and welM3) (Table 2). Only welM2 was identified in the wel gene cluster from FM SAG1427-1. Although sequence downstream of the wel cluster in HW UTEXB1830 is
unable to establish the presence of welM2 and welM3, we propose (on the basis of the homology of genes within each of the wel gene clusters) that welM2 and welM3 would be conserved. Hillwig et al.  have established that welM1 encodes the N-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of N-methyl-welwitindolinone C isonitrile via in vitro enzymology, confirming the wel gene cluster is responsible for welwitindolinone biosynthesis. M2 is Epigenetics inhibitor proposed to encode a SAM-dependent methyltransferase, whilst M3 is proposed Selleck Pritelivir to encode a histamine N-methyltransferase. The purpose of welM2 and
welM3 remain unknown, as no other known compounds of the hapalindole family require an additional methylation reaction. Ambiguine biosynthesis The aromatic prenyltransferase AmbP3 was characterized, and shown to be responsible for catalyzing the prenylation of hapalindole G with DMAPP to produce the ambiguines. We identified ambP3 only in the amb gene cluster from FA UTEX1903, thus confirming this is the only species within this study with the capability to produce ambiguines. Other genes Three response regulator-coding genes have been identified from the nine gene clusters analyzed in this study. welR3 is unique to the wel gene clusters. However, the two regulatory genes R1 and R2 were identified in all hpi/amb/wel gene clusters (excluding FM SAG1427-1). The transporter genes E1-3 that were originally identified in the amb gene cluster have also been identified in the hpi gene cluster from FS PCC9339. E4, proposed to encode
a small multidrug resistance protein, was identified in three wel gene clusters Metalloexopeptidase identified in this study (HW IC-52-3, WI HT-29-1 and FS PCC9431). C1 and C3 are proposed to encode proteins for which their function in hapalindole/ambiguine/welwitindolinone biosynthesis remains unknown. Conclusions The identification of the seven biosynthetic gene clusters in this study, along with the recently published amb and wel biosynthetic gene clusters, enabled bioinformatic comparisons to be performed. Organization of the wel gene clusters is distinct from the hpi and amb gene clusters, which enables the prediction of which class of hapalindole-type natural products (either hapalindoles, ambiguines or welwitindolinones) may be biosynthesized from these clusters within genomes.