2002; Ghaffari et al. 2008; Shannon et al. 2001;Morken et al. 2003; van der Giezen et al. 2000; Heymans et al. 2006). These aspects could be seen as Cyclosporin A manufacturer support items but also as part of a larger
concept of the workers’ general evaluation of their job. According to Karasek et al. (1998), aspects such as satisfaction with work, level of demands on the worker, the level of control the worker has, level of conflict at work are all important in their own right. It may be that the measures of general work support have been influenced by some of these factors. This therefore suggests that aspects involved in the supportive context for workers are important as prognostic factors for back pain; however, due to the variation in measurements used by studies in this review, the exact constructs relating to this are indistinct. Taken together, the results Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor for risk and prognosis show a weak effect of employment-related support for those with back pain. Less clear are the mechanisms that explain this association and this may be partly due to the ambiguity on what is meant by ‘support’ in an employment context. For example, a recent review by Woods
(2005) included aspects of support such as satisfaction with learn more employment, emotional support, conflict in the workplace, policy on occupational health, level of communication, health and safety policy, sickness absence policy, whereas other reviews such as Hartvigsen et al. (2004) have only reported on effects of direct co-worker support and supervisor support; Steenstra et al. (2005) and Hoogendoorn et al. (2001) have both included measures of problematic relations with other workers, whereas Kuijer et al. (2006) did not clearly specify what they meant by employment social support. This then broadens the scope of the concept of ‘support’ and this variation in definition may have contributed to the level of inconsistency described in previous reviews. Interestingly, this review could be construed as spanning this
inconsistency, Suplatast tosilate with no or very weak evidence of an effect for specific measures of CWS and SS (e.g. similar to Harvigsen et al.) but an increase in association for the generic GWS concept (e.g. similar to Woods). Many of the studies within the review who report GWS have combined measures of CWS and SS, and it is suggestive that some effect is there but it appears greater than the sum of its parts. Future research needs to consider the inherent complexity in the conceptualisation of employment social support (for a fuller explanation see “Appendix 4”). Furthermore, as mentioned in the introduction, the concept of employment co-worker and supervisor support forms only part of a larger model proposed by Karasek et al. (1998). There is a need to consider the component influence of employment social support as a moderator by using more sophisticated statistical modelling (e.g.