) Swingle (Simaroubaceae), Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz (Araliaceae), and Pinus massoniana Lamb. (Pinaceae) in warm temperate evergreen broadleaved forests in Zhangjiajie National Forest Park in 1999, Badagongshan National Nature Reserve in 1999 and 2000, Daweishan National Forest Park in 2000, and Shunhuangshan National Forest Park in 2001 of Hunan Province selleck kinase inhibitor in south-central China. For more information on the study area, see Koponen et al. (2000, 2004). The fossils with proliferating ascocarps (Fig. 7) are preserved attached to wood debris in a 17 × 13 × 5 mm piece of Bitterfeld amber from the Heinrich Grabenhorst collection (collection number Li-83) that is now housed in the Geoscientific
Collections of the Georg August University Göttingen (collection number GZG.BST.27285). Bitterfeld amber originates Napabucasin mouse from the Goitzsche mine near the city of Bitterfeld (central Germany) and was recovered from the “Bernsteinschluff” Horizon in the upper part of the Cottbus Formation. The Upper Oligocene amber-bearing sediment has an absolute age of 25.3–23.8 Ma (Blumenstengel 2004; Knuth et al. 2002). A previous notion that Bitterfeld amber either represents re-deposited Eocene Baltic amber, or is at least much older than the amber-bearing strata (Weitschat 1997) was disproven by recent reconstructions of the sedimentary environment of this huge amber deposit (see Standke 2008, and discussion
in Schmidt and Dörfelt 2007, and Dunlop 2010). The non-proliferating fossil ascocarps (Figs. 8 and 9) are enclosed in a 2.5 × 1.5 × 1 cm piece of Baltic amber from the Jörg Wunderlich collection (collection number F1178/BB/FUN/CJW) that is now housed in the TSA HDAC manufacturer Geoscientific Collections of the Georg August University Göttingen (collection number GZG.BST.27286). Four immature and six mature ascomata derive from a mycelium that directly grew on the surface of a stalactite-like resin piece which served as substrate for the resinicolous fungus. These were preserved by a subsequent resin flow that had then covered over the material. The Eocene sediments containing the majority of Baltic amber in the Kaliningrad area (Russia) are 35–47 Ma old (Standke
1998). Microscopy, imaging and microanalysis SPTLC1 Morphological features of the extant fungal specimens were observed and measured in water under a light microscope (Leica DMLS) with a 100x oil-immersion objective. Potassium-hydroxide (KOH), Lugol’s reagent (IKI), Melzer’s reagent (MLZ), Congo Red (CR; CR + congophilous, coloring strongly red in CR), and nitric acid (N) were used when observing some diagnostic structures, like paraphyses and stipe hyphae. Ascomata from dried Cunninghamia bark pieces were imaged under a Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 compound microscope using simultaneously incident and transmitted light. Spores were imaged on a microscope slide in water using 1600× (oil immersion) magnification and Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) illumination.