, 2003 and Savini et al., 2005) only BTV strains already in circulation were detected, despite using diagnostic techniques and assay systems with a broad range of detection (blind passage through chick embryos and vertebrate cell lines). Similarly, more general surveys of arboviruses in wildlife and a wide
variety of sentinel hosts have failed to uncover evidence of widespread circulation of unknown arboviruses ( Gratz, 2006, Hubalek and Halouzka, 1996 and Lundstrom, 1999). Following identification, control strategies used to reduce further spread of Culicoides-borne arboviruses of livestock could include euthanizing index cases; imposing trade movement restrictions; using a variety of techniques to reduce AZD8055 in vivo Culicoides-host contact and compulsory or voluntary vaccination of livestock hosts to either
eradicate the pathogen or reduce clinical disease. At present the degree to which systematic eradication GSK126 chemical structure plans are considered is dependent upon the probable economic impact of arbovirus outbreaks, the potential for an arbovirus to persist in particular regions of Europe (as this region includes areas where Culicoides adults are absent for significant periods over winter) as well as the technical and financial challenges posed in production of a suitable vaccine. In the case of BTV-8, despite early evidence of high pathogenicity ( Darpel et al., 2007), an apparent means of overwintering ( Darpel et al., 2009, De Clercq et
al., 2008 and Wilson et al., 2008) and the availability of technology to produce a highly effective vaccine ( Parker et al., 1975), it still required between eighteen months and 2 years to deploy systematic vaccination campaigns, partly due to the need to identify a large enough market before production could commence. In the case of SBV clinical impact until is currently thought to be relatively limited and there is a potential that the virus may eradicate itself from large areas due to rapid and efficient transmission resulting in antibody protection in a high proportion of hosts. In addition, SBV originates from a virus group which is not usually considered sufficiently economically important to warrant systematic vaccination (though changes in host management to prevent exposure of pregnant females to infected vectors during critical periods of foetal development may be cost-effective). Following detection of a human-to-human Culicoides-borne arbovirus in Europe, the public health response would be determined by similar drivers to livestock pathogens but with a greater emphasis on clinical impact.