50 This group was maintained on moderate doses of

50 This group was maintained on moderate doses of methadone (60 to 90 mg/day). As discussed above, an early clinical study from our laboratory, a very recent clinical study from our laboratory, and a recent laboratory-based study have all suggested that increasing the dose of methadone may decrease cocaine addiction in maintenance patients with dual-dependency, and further, in the rodent model, that the addition of steady-state methadone may prevent alterations in mu-opioid receptor gene expression and attenuate or prevent conditioned place preference to cocaine.46-48 In another set of studies reported in the last decade we have re-explored

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the glucocorticoid negative feedback both in methadone-maintained former heroin addicts, as well as those with ongoing cocaine dependence.57 In all our earlier studies, we found, surprisingly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that all of the methadone-maintained patients had normal suppression to dexamethasone and, in this study, we also used two lower doses than the usual suppression dose, that is, 0.5 and .125 mg and found that all subjects suppressed completely (as reviewed in refs 5,7,57). All Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the cocaine-dependent methadone-maintained patients also suppressed completely. Although not significant, the glucocorticoid feedback effects in the cocaine-dependent, methadone-maintained patients, and also in the otherwise well-stabilized

methadone-maintained patients appeared to be greater than the normal volunteers in the late afternoon, suggesting that there may be a modestly altered, or enhanced, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical negative feedback by glucocorticolds, in at least some subjects.57 This, in turn, may contribute to the observed attenuation of both basal and cocaine-induced responsivity of the HPA axis in humans and in rodents in other studies from our laboratory and others. In another

study, we examined the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor in methadone-maintained versus control subjects. In this study, we found differences between long-term well-stabilized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical methadone-maintained subjects as www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBW2992.html compared with normal control subjects.58 In this study, two doses of CRF were used; one lower than the usual dose (0.5 jug/kg) and one dose higher (2.0 mg/kg) than usually used in the neuroendocrine diagnostic procedure first (100 jug, irrespective of weight).58 There was no difference in hormonal measurements between the two groups following placebo administration, nor during low-dose hCRF administration. However, following high-dose CRF administration, the methadone-maintained patients displayed a significantly greater increase in plasma ACTH levels than did the normal volunteers.58 This suggested that in long-term methadone-maintained patients some abnormalities in HPA axis responsivity may pertain, in this case, a greater sensitivity of the anterior pituitary to CRF stimulation.

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