We describe these approaches in the Typical Development section. We will not cover functional development, as many studies are task-specific and would require much more space to review. In addition to covering development of healthy individuals (Table I), we review the neuroimaging PH797804 literature on a number of neurodevelopmental disorders (Table II), including autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, and Turner
syndrome. Where possible, we selected studies that examined the interaction of age and diagnosis, but in some cases we discuss studies simply addressing the effects of a disorder on the brain, as fewer studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have mapped disease effects on the entire developmental trajectory. A few other recent reviews
focus on the development of brain structure,5 functional connectivity,6,7 or structural connectivity8-11 either in typically developing or atypically developing individuals.7,12 In this review, we address Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical each of these topics, but readers are encouraged to refer to these reviews, in addition to the articles we cite here. Table I Studies investigating typical development that are reviewed in this paper. Bold indicates study that examined age* diagnosis effect. *, no gender information; AD, autism; ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; PBD, pediatric bipolar Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder; … Table II Studies investigating neurodevelopmental disorders that are reviewed in this paper. Bold indicates study that examined age* diagnosis effect. AD, autism disorder; TD,
typically developing; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; FX, Fragile X; DD, developmental … Typical development An exhaustive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical review of all studies of typical development with various neuroimaging methods is beyond the scope of this paper, so we will highlight illustrative examples that reflect some general trends in the field (Table I). Structural MRI A vast number of methods have been used to investigate changes in brain structure. The most traditional way to measure anatomical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical changes in the brain is to identify the substructures of brain—often by manual tracing, or more recently by using automated computer programs CYTH4 to measure their volumes. By parcellating the brain into regions with different functions, such as the major lobes, the subcortical nuclei, and cortical regions, several early landmark studies generated “growth curves,” or norms, to show how the size of different brain regions increases—or decreases—with age. Around the year 2000, the first studies were published describing data from large cohorts of children scanned with MRI. Distinct and characteristic growth trajectories were found for each brain region,13 with some notable sex differences.14-16 A more detailed picture of the developmental trajectory emerged with the advent of voxel-based brain mapping methods.