8 and 11 nm only As a result, the photoexcited holes are readily

8 and 11 nm only. As a result, the photoexcited holes are readily thermionically excited out of the wells and swept out of the intrinsic AZD8931 order region under the influence of the external and built-in electric field as we have

reported elsewhere [31]. This is a very fast process AZD2171 mouse and would give a fast component to the PC transients. The main contribution to the steady state PC is therefore due to the electrons. In order for an electron photogenerated in the QW to contribute to the photocurrent, it must either be thermionically excited or tunnel into the continuum over the CB discontinuity or sequentially tunnel into the neighbouring wells [23, 32]. Which of these two processes dominates PC should depend upon the temperature, barrier height/thickness and the applied bias. Under optical illumination, electron–hole pairs are generated in the quantum wells. The disparity between the electron and hole escape rates from the QWs means that even a small electric field across a well will allow the holes to escape. Instead, because of the different confinement energy, the electrons are trapped in the well, and without holes in the valence band, they cannot recombine and start accumulating. This electron accumulation acts as a space charge, screening

the built-in charge of the junction. Consequently, the applied voltage is not uniformly distributed across the intrinsic region; instead, it will be click here applied only between the positive charge at the edge of the n-type region and the closest well with a large negative charge. High-field domain [22] is formed, and an increase in the applied bias leads to the reduction of the electron escape time for a single well at a time. Further increase of the electric field

makes the O-methylated flavonoid high-field domain high enough to allow electrons to escape and flow the n-type region resulting in a sudden change (an oscillation) in PC. PC oscillations are visible also in superlattice structures [24], but they are based to the strong carrier coupling among the wells, leading to the occurrence of negative differential resistance (NDR) via sequential resonant tunnelling between adjacent QWs. However, because of the thick GaAs barriers between adjacent QWs in our structures, sequential resonant tunnelling is unlikely to occur. Hence, we did not observe any NDR. Thermionic emission from the QWs and Fowler-Nordheim [33] tunnelling from the well adjacent to the n-type bulk region are instead the two likely electron escape mechanisms. The hole capture time by the QWs is much longer than the hole flight time between adjacent wells so that the holes transfer rapidly to the p-region of the device without being captured [31]. This results in the net negative charge accumulation in the wells. PC oscillations do not occur in samples with a strong hole confinement, i.e. in samples with high In concentration as implied by Chen et al. [34] where the indium concentration was 35% and the nitrogen 0.23%, with ΔE C = 510 meV and ΔE V = 130 meV.

Comments are closed.