For this reason, all HIV-positive adults should be assessed for CVD risk annually and interventions
targeted at improving modifiable risk factors. We suggest avoiding ABC (2C), FPV/r (2C) and LPV/r (2C) in patients with a high CVD risk, if acceptable alternative ARV drugs are available. Number of patients with high CVD risk on either ABC or FPV/r or LPV/r and record of rationale. Modifiable risk factors should be addressed in all patients with high CVD risk. No RCT has been powered to assess the CVD risk associated with the use of individual ARVs and a history of CVD may be an exclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of all RCTs where ABC was assigned randomly found no association with MI, but the event rate in the population was low; the extent to which these findings can Dasatinib manufacturer be extrapolated to a population with high CVD risk is unknown . Although a post hoc analysis of the SMART study did find such an association, use of ABC was not randomized . Two cohorts have Selleckchem BMS-734016 found a strong association between recent ABC use and MI
[201, 202] while another did not [203, 204]; all were limited in their ability to adjust for presence of CVD risk factors. An analysis of the manufacturer’s trial registry found no association , but the trials only enrolled patients with low CVD risk. One case–control study, which did not adjust for important CVD risk factors, did find an elevated risk of MI associated with ABC use  but another did not . Cerebrovascular
events were more very common in patients exposed to ABC in two cohort studies [184, 204] while another found a protective effect . In view of the uncertainty about the safety of ABC in patients with a high CVD risk, we suggest the use of alternative agents where possible. Early studies of PI exposure and risk of MI gave conflicting results, some reporting an increased risk [181, 206] while others did not [179, 192, 207]. The D:A:D cohort, with longer follow-up, reported an increasing risk of MI with years of PI exposure (independent of measured metabolic effects) . Cumulative exposure to indinavir and LPV/r were associated with increasing risk of MI [adjusted relative risk per year for LPV/r 1.13 (95% CI 1.05–1.21); relative risk at 5 years 1.84] . Case–control studies reported similar associations for LPV/r [183, 188] and FPV/r  but in one of these, important CVD risk factors were not included . A further study found no association between PI exposure and all cerebrovascular events . An updated analysis has recently reported no association between ATV/r use and an increased risk of MI . Although there has been insufficient data to include DRV/r in these analyses, in patients with a high CVD risk, we suggest the use of alternatives to LPV/r and FPV/r where possible.