Salmonella enterica serovar EPZ015666 solubility dmso Typhimurium causes acute enteritis in humans and food-producing mammals. Human infections are frequently associated with direct or indirect contact with food-producing animals and strategies are required to limit entry of Salmonella into the food chain and environment. Intestinal colonization, invasion, induction of enteritis and systemic spread by Salmonella requires type III secretion systems (T3SSs; reviewed in Stevens et al., 2009). T3SSs translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol where they subvert cellular pathways (reviewed in Galán & Wolf-Watz, 2006). Salmonella possesses three T3SSs (T3SS-1,
T3SS-2 and the flagella system) used at distinct stages of infection.
The flagella system mediates bacterial motility and influences the induction of innate responses owing to secretion of the Toll-like receptor-5 agonist flagellin. T3SS-1 encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 promotes bacterial entry into intestinal epithelia by subversion of actin dynamics and plays a key role in the induction of enteritis. The SPI-2-encoded T3SS-2 promotes intracellular survival and, in some serovars or hosts, influences intestinal colonization, enteritis and systemic virulence (Stevens et al., 2009). As structural components of T3SSs are conserved in many pathogenic bacteria, they represent C646 solubility dmso an attractive drug target (Alksne & Projan, 2000; Patel et al., 2005). Targeting virulence factors without affecting viability may offer an advantage over conventional antibiotics as resistance is predicted to be less likely to develop and escape may occur at the cost of virulence factor function or expression. Furthermore, virulence factors are often absent in nonpathogenic bacteria, thereby limiting deleterious effects on endogenous microorganisms. One such class of compounds are salicylidene acylhydrazides, which inhibit T3SSs in Yersinia (Kauppi et al., 2003; Nordfelth et al., 2005), Chlamydia (Muschiol et al., 2006, 2009; Wolf et al., 2006; Bailey et al., 2007), Shigella (Veenendaal et al., 2009), and enterohaemorrhagic E.
coli (Tree et al., 2009). Related molecules with a salicylideneaniline moiety inhibit T3S in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (Gauthier et al., 2005). We and others have shown that several salicylidene acylhydrazides inhibit T3SS-1 in S. Typhimurium aminophylline in vitro (Hudson et al., 2007; Negrea et al., 2007) and reduce enteritis in a bovine ligated intestinal loop model of infection (Hudson et al., 2007). Here, we sought to determine the effect of a well-studied salicylidene acylhydrazide on the transcriptome of S. Typhimurium and to evaluate the relevance of selected pathways modulated by the drug in the inhibition of T3S. INP0403 was prepared as described (Ainscough et al., 1999) by Innate Pharmaceuticals AB (Umeå, Sweden), and was 97% pure as assessed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (data not shown).