In addition, biofilm cells adhered to HEp-2 cells 58% less than p

In addition, biofilm cells adhered to HEp-2 cells 58% less than planktonic cells. Biofilm formation is considered a virulence phenotype in both Gram-negative (Hall-Stoodley et al., 2004) and Gram-positive bacteria (Cucarella et al., 2004). In our study, virulent strains HA9801 and ZY05719

had a greater ability to form biofilms than avirulent strain T15. Many recent studies have also suggested a link between the ability of biofilm formation and bacterial virulence (Holmberg et al., 2009; Jain & Agarwal, 2009; Yamanaka et al., 2009). Deighton et al. (1996) compared the virulence of slime-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis with that of a slime-negative strain in a mouse model of subcutaneous BMS-907351 in vitro infection and showed that biofilm-positive strains produced significantly more abscesses that persisted longer than biofilm-negative strains. Takeshi (Yamanaka et

al., 2009) reported that biofilm-forming Prevotella intermedia strain 17 showed a stronger ability to induce abscesses in mice than strain 17-2, which is not capable of biofilm formation. Similar results emerged with other bacteria (Jain & Agarwal, 2009). However, previous reports do not discuss the reasons why bacteria form biofilms, nor do they compare cell adhesion and virulence properties in biofilm and planktonic cells. this website Analysis of our results provides some reasons. Differences in motility, metabolism, protein synthesis, and entering into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state were observed when SS grown as a biofilm was compared with SS grown as planktonic cells (Baffone et al., 2003; Dykes et al., 2003; Sampathkumar et al., 2006). Specifically, Sampathkumar et al. (2006) showed that motility was downregulated in Campylobacter jejuni grown as a biofilm. This was due to the fact that motility is a key factor in virulence (Jones et al., 2004). Cells enter the VBNC state in response to some forms

of natural stress, wherein cells also undergo dramatic decreases in metabolism and many biological features change (Oliver, 2010). This state may also occur in biofilms. It is thought that biofilm cells enter the VBNC state, which induces changes of bacterial adhesion and virulence, due to some form of natural stress, Docetaxel mw such as starvation or osmotic concentration changes. VBNC Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi strains lost their virulence characteristics in an animal model (Sun et al., 2008). In this study, the adherence ability of SS biofilm cells to HEp-2 cells decreased 58% compared with planktonic cells, and this will influence the cells’ attachment to the host cells. The decreased adherence capacity to HEp-2 is also evidence that bacterial virulence is decreased in biofilm cells. Similar results were also observed in another report, in which C. jejuni strain cultured in broth had a greater ability to adhere than this strain as a biofilm (Hanning et al., 2009).

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