However, menses was not reported for the following 4 months and chronically suppressed concentrations of E1G and PdG were observed, confirming
the presence of another episode of amenorrhea. During this period of amenorrhea, body weight and caloric intake decreased slightly toward baseline values then increased again, leading to a second resumption of menses 144 days (~5 months) into MAPK Inhibitor Library chemical structure the intervention. For the remaining 7 months of the study, 8 more cycles were reported, with consistent cycle lengths of 24 to 29 days (Figure 2). Despite consistent intermenstrual intervals, the cycles were characterized by subtle menstrual disturbances. Of the 10 cycles reported during the study, 6 were ovulatory and 4 were anovulatory. Of the ovulatory cycles, all of them displayed a luteal phase defect. Four cycles were characterized by both a short and inadequate luteal phase, one cycle had just a short luteal phase, and one cycle had an inadequate luteal phase. Figure 2 Reproductive hormone profile for Participant 2. This figure displays the reproductive hormone profile during the study for Participant 2 and the changes in caloric intake, body weight, and energy status that coincided with each category of menstrual recovery. Arrows indicate menses. ‡ Indicates data were collected 5 weeks after menses. † Indicates data
were collected 3 days after menses. %BF: percent body fat; BMI: body mass index; BW: selleck products body weight; E1G: estrone-1-glucuronide; nr: not reported; PdG: pregnanediol glucuronide; REE/pREE: measured resting energy expenditure/predicted resting energy Etomidate expenditure; TT3: total triiodothyronine. Changes in bone health As depicted in Table 4, low BMD at the lumbar spine and hip were observed at baseline. No significant increases in BMD were observed; however, P1NP increased by 51.6%
and CTx decreased 36.1%, demonstrating a favorable change in bone turnover. Discussion This case report examined the effects of a 12-month controlled intervention of increased caloric intake in two exercising women with current amenorrhea of varying duration and documents for the first time the simultaneous response of markers of energetic status, daily changes in reproductive hormones, and markers of bone health. The two women in this case report successfully gained weight and resumed menses in response to the non-pharmacological intervention of increased caloric intake. We also document the onset of ovulatory function and regular inter-menstrual intervals in these women and highlight the improved energetic milieu that preceded the reproductive milestones. Resumption of menses successfully occurred in both women with an intervention that increased caloric intake rather than decreased EEE, a strategy that may be attractive to both athletes and coaches because it does not interfere with training volume or intensity.