However, the effects of silicate biomaterials on the interactions between ECs and OCs during vascularization and osteogenesis have not been reported, which are critical for bone tissue regeneration CFTRinh172 in vivo. Therefore,
this study aimed to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) bioceramics on interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and on stimulation of vascularization and osteogenesis in vivo through combining co-cultures with CS containing scaffolds. Specifically, the effects of CS on the angiogenic growth factor VEGF, osteogenic growth factor BMP-2 and the cross-talks between VEGF and BMP-2 in the co-culture system were elucidated. Results showed that CS stimulated co-cultured HBMSCs (co-HBMSCs) to express VEGF and the VEGF activated its receptor KDR on co-cultured HUVECs (co-HUVECs), which was also up-regulated by CS. Then,
BMP-2 and nitric oxide expression from the co-HUVECs were stimulated by CS and the former stimulated osteogenic differentiation of co-HBMSCs while the latter stimulated vascularization of co-HVUECs. Finally, the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/CS composite scaffolds with the co-cultured HBMSCs and HUVECs significantly enhanced vascularization and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that it is a promising way to enhance bone regeneration by combining scaffolds containing silicate bioceramics and co-cultures of
ECs and OCs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective The selleck kinase inhibitor aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin compared with glimepiride in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycemic control with diet and exercise alone. Methods This was a randomized, parallel-group, multinational, non-inferiority clinical trial with an active-controlled, double-blind treatment period in which patients bigger than = 65 and smaller than = 85 years of age with T2DM were screened at 85 sites. Patients were randomized to once-daily sitagliptin (100 or 50 mg, depending on renal function) or glimepiride (in titrated doses) for 30 weeks. The main outcome measures selleck were change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body weight; and the incidence of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Results The mean baseline HbA(1c) was 7.8 % in both the sitagliptin group (n = 197) and the glimepiride group (n = 191). After 30 weeks, the least squares (LS) mean change in HbA(1c) baseline was -0.32 % with sitagliptin and -0.51 % with glimepiride, for a between-group difference (95 % CI) of 0.19 % (0.03-0.34). This result met the pre-specified criterion for declaring non-inferiority, which required that the upper 95 % confidence limit lie below 0.4 %. The LS mean change in FPG from baseline was -14.5 mg/dL with sitagliptin and -21.