Kidneys, liver and spleen were removed for histopathological examination. Tumor cells were evaluated for cellular
viability and cell cycle. The survival of animals treated with SpHL-CDDP was higher than those treated check details with free CDDP. The cell death caused by treatment with SpHL-CDDP occurred through induction of apoptosis, with a cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. The treatment of mice presenting initial cancer with both formulations provoked a suppression of granulocytes. Mice treated with free CDDP also showed a decrease in platelet count, which suggests a high myelotoxicity. In an advanced cancer model, SpHL-CDDP treatment allowed an improvement of the immune response. Mice affected by cancer at an early stage and treated with free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP showed a lower urea/creatinine index compared with the saline control group. These findings indicate that both treatments were able to reduce the renal damage caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis. Microscopic analysis of kidneys from mice treated with SpHL-CDDP showed a discrete morphological alteration, while tubular necrosis was observed for free CDDP-treated mice. Concerning hepatotoxicity, no alteration in clinical chemistry parameters was observed. These findings reveal that SpHL-CDDP can improve the antitumor efficacy and decrease renal and Selleck Fosbretabulin bone marrow toxicity.”
“Flavoproteins are unique redox coenzymes, and the dynamic
solvation at their function sites is critical to the understanding of their electron-transfer properties. Here, we report our complete characterization of the function-site solvation of holoflavodoxin in three redox states
and of the binding-site solvation of apoflavodoxin. Using intrinsic flavin cofactor and tryptophan residue as the local optical probes with two site-specific mutations, we observed distinct ZD1839 ultrafast solvation dynamics at the function site in the three states and at the related recognition site of the cofactor, ranging from a few to hundreds of picoseconds. The initial ultrafast motion in 1-2.6 ps reflects the local water-network relaxation around the shallow, solvent-exposed function site. The second relaxation in 20-40 ps results from the coupled local water-protein fluctuation. The third dynamics in hundreds of picoseconds is from the intrinsic fluctuation of the loose loops flanking the cofactor at the function site. These solvation dynamics with different amplitudes well correlate with the redox states from the oxidized form, to the more rigid semiquinone and to the much looser hydroquinone. This observation of the redox control of local protein conformation plasticity and water network flexibility is significant, and such an intimate relationship is essential to the biological function of interprotein electron transfer.”
“Polyomaviruses are a family of small non-enveloped DNA viruses that encode oncogenes and have been associated, to greater or lesser extent, with human disease and cancer.