Moreover, an anterograde neuronal tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). was demonstrated to pass from the neonatally LOT-transected bulb, through the transected retrobulbar site, towards the olfactory cortex, far caudally at a level
near the optic chiasm. The regenerated structures lacked immunoreactivity for myelin basic protein and electron-dense myelinated axon bundles, and were also characterized by the thinness of the BDA(+) terminal zone within the olfactory cortex and the lack of its caudal extension. Young adult rats subjected to unilateral bulbectomy contralateral to the neonatally LOT-transected side showed perfect ability to discriminate cycloheximide solution by olfaction. From these findings, we conclude that the spontaneously selleck compound regenerated olfactory system is functional despite structural incompleteness (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society All rights reserved”
“Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using
Selinexor mouse a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA
damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, Silmitasertib in vitro the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.”
“Sex differences in song nuclei are evident across songbirds. To explore candidate genes involving in the sexual dimorphism of song nuclei, the present study used suppression subtraction hybridization to identify male-biased genes in the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata) From 199 clones with an inserted sequence, we obtained a gene (parvalbumin.