Moreover, induced Akt activity (p-AKT) (due to overexpression) is

Moreover, induced Akt activity (p-AKT) (due to overexpression) is sufficient to block apoptosis triggered by many death stimuli Crenolanib in vitro [5]. p53 has an important protective role against undesired cell proliferation. As such, p53 has been described as the “guardian of the genome”. The p53 protein is a transcription

factor that normally inhibits cell growth and stimulates cell death in response to myriad stressors, including DNA damage (induced by either UV or chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide), oxidative stress, and deregulated oncogene expression [6–10]. p53 activation is characterized by a drastic increase and its rapid accumulation in stressed cells [11]. p53 is a master gene regulator controlling diverse cellular pathways, by either activating or repressing downstream genes. Among such genes, there is also the selleck compound proto-oncogene c-myc, which is negatively regulated by p53 [12]. The c-myc proto-oncogene encodes the c-myc transcription factor, BAY 73-4506 and was originally identified as the cellular homologue to the viral oncogene (v-myc) of the avian myelocytomatosis retrovirus [13, 14]. More recently, elevated or deregulated expression of c-myc has been detected in a wide range of human cancers, and is often associated with aggressive, poorly differentiated tumours [15, 16]. One of

the key biological functions of c- myc is its ability to promote cell-cycle progression [17–19] by repressing genes as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27), which are involved in cell-cycle arrest [20–22]. Cell division relies on the activation of cyclins, which bind to cyclin-dependent kinases to induce

cell-cycle progression towards mitosis. Following anti-mitogenic signals, p21 and p27 bind to cyclin-dependent kinase complexes to inhibit their catalytic activity and induce cell-cycle arrest [23]. Acceleration of tumorigenesis is observed when apoptosis is suppressed by overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl2 [24]. When anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members are overexpressed, the ratio of FAD pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members is disturbed and apoptotic cell death can be prevented. Targeting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins can improve apoptosis [25–27]. Apoptosis induction is arguably the most potent defence against cancer growth. Evidence suggests that certain chemopreventive agents can trigger apoptosis in transformed cells in vivo and in vitro, which appears to be associated with their effectiveness in modulating the process of carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effect of CF on 12 different cell lines showing that the nutraceutical has anti-cancer activity.

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