The MICs of purified native EntA from E. faecium T136 against Listerias ranged from 40 to 120 ng/ml . Similarly, rEntA also showed a narrow antibacterial spectrum (Table 1) including L. ivanovii ATCC19119, and with a low MIC value of 20 ng/ml, it is approximately 20-fold lower than that of ampicillin (390 ng/ml). The re-growth after MVL achievement was a common phenomenon
when the Listeria was treated with bacteriocins such as EntA, pediocin, sakacin A and enterococcin EFS2 in relatively low concentrations (1× or 2 × MIC) , but we found no re-growth after MVL within 10 h learn more when 4 × MIC rEnA was used with the Listeria (Figure 3), indicating that higher concentrations of rEnA are essential to inhibit the multiplication of Listeria. The bactericidal activity and overall structure of Pediocin PA-1 and piscicolin 126
were well maintained at higher temperatures [35,36]. The native EntA was stable at 100°C and acidic pH conditions . We found that rEntA also exhibited high stability under a wide range of temperatures (37–80°C) and pH levels (2–8) (Figure 4). These properties were potentially due to the higher cysteine content of the antimicrobial peptides , similar to the EntA containing four cysteine residues. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of some bacteriocins (nisin, sakacin P and curvacin A) was significantly enhanced with the addition of NaCl from 0 to 1.17 M . However, the activity of rEntA against Listeria was enhanced only at low NaCl concentrations (25 and 50 mM). Despite the unknown mechanisms PI3K inhibitor of the above differential Selleckchem Compound C effects, the high stability of rEntA over wide ranges of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration supports its use as a food preservative and drug candidate. Due to the high content of basic and aromatic amino acids in class IIa bacteriocins, pediocin PA-1, enterocin B, plantaricin 423
and native EntA were very sensitive to the digestive proteases trypsin and pepsin [11,40,41]. Similarly, the purified rEntA, with 12.76% basic amino acids and 10.63% aromatic amino acids, was inactivated with trypsin and pepsin (Figure 4C). This high sensitivity to digestive proteases of rEntA contributes to its safety in foods and drugs, DOK2 during and after oral administration. Conclusion In conclusion, rEntA, as an antimicrobial agent with merit, could selectively kill important and pathogenic Listeria and retain bio-activity over a wide range of pH values, temperature and NaCl concentrations. These excellent antibacterial properties make it a potential candidate as a food preservative and therapeutic antimicrobial agent. rEntA was successfully expressed in P. pastoris X-33 at the highest level of 51,200 AU/ml and was purified through a gel filtration column. This yeast system may be a feasible technological approach to produce rEntA as a potent anti-Listeria agent after further optimization.