Normalization of glucose levels in patients with diabetes should

Normalization of glucose levels in patients with diabetes should lead to improvement in hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusions The diagnosis sellckchem of PCOS implies increased cardiac risk. Weight loss and proper nutrition are paramount to decreasing this risk. Approximately half of these patients will be insulinresistant, and treatment may have far-reaching potential by decreasing their lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. If the patient is planning to conceive, treatment of dyslipidemia with statins is not recommended until childbearing is completed. Ultimately, longstanding oligomenorrhea may lead to endometrial hyperplasia and, possibly, to endometrial adenocarcinoma, and thus OCPs are protective and a key recommendation. Future studies are warranted to establish cardiovascular screening guidelines for women with PCOS.

Clinicians may consider early cardiovascular screening and treatment of all modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to secondary prevention levels. Main Points Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a symptom complex that includes amenorrhea, hirsutism, and enlarged polycystic ovaries. The incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as well as of coronary and vascular disease, may be higher in women with PCOS during their reproductive years than in patients with the cardiometabolic syndrome. In a recent study of women with PCOS, 46% also had the metabolic syndrome. Studies using noninvasive vascular assessment of atherosclerotic plaque, such as coronary calcium and carotid intimal medial thickness assessments, have confirmed a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease in PCOS patients relative to the general population.

PCOS patients have been found to have a higher prevalence of aortic calcification, a marker of atherosclerotic disease. Weight loss and proper nutrition are paramount to decreasing the increased cardiac risk associated with PCOS.
Health outcomes differ substantially for mothers and infants who formula feed compared with those who breastfeed, even in developed countries such as the United States. A recent meta-analysis by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reviewed this evidence in detail1: For infants, not being breastfed is associated with an increased incidence of infectious morbidity, including otitis media, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, as well as elevated risks of childhood obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Among premature infants, not receiving breast milk is associated with an increased risk of necrotizing Anacetrapib enterocolitis (NEC). For mothers, failure to breastfeed is associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, ovarian cancer, retained gestational weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that infant feeding is an important modifiable risk factor for disease for both mothers and infants.

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