Symptoms often begin abruptly with a non-specific febrile illness

Symptoms often begin abruptly with a non-specific febrile illness that may be self-limiting, or may progress to aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Aseptic meningitis with nausea, vomiting headache, nuchal rigidity and photophobia is seen in 5–10% of patients, while encephalitis, the most serious manifestation of JE, is seen in up to 60–75% of patients. Encephalitis follows the febrile prodrome by 2–4 days and is characterized by altered sensorium, motor ML323 and behavioral abnormalities. Individuals may also manifest acute flaccid paralysis with areflexia resembling poliomyelitis, seizures and movement disorders, typically

choreoathetosis, myoclonus and Parkinsonism [1, 2]. In those with mild non-neurological disease, clinical improvement coincides with the onset of defervescence. However, the motor deficits, movement, behavioral, psychiatric disorders and learning deficits often persist and may take several decades to improve. These long-term sequelae extend the morbidity of selleck the infection well beyond the acute period and add to the health and economic burden to local communities [28]. Laboratory Diagnosis of JE Infection Diagnosis of acute JE infection is made by detecting JEV-specific IgM or a fourfold rise in JEV-specific IgG in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC ELISA). JEV-specific IgM antibodies rise rapidly and are detectable in the CSF by

day 4 after the onset of symptoms, and by day 7 in the serum, followed by a slower rise in JEV-specific IgG [29, 30]. By

day 30 after primary infection, JEV-specific IgG antibodies are detected in the serum in 100% of individuals. However, in endemic regions, JE antibodies may be confounded by cross-reacting antibodies from other flavivirus infection such as dengue, tick-born encephalitis or from previous vaccination against Erastin clinical trial yellow fever or JE [31, 32]. A fourfold or greater rise in JE-specific antibodies between acute and convalescent-phase serum 2–4 weeks apart is useful in confirming acute infection and distinguishing from non-JEV flaviviral cross-reacting antibodies. JEV-specific IgM may also be detectable in the CSF and has been associated with a poorer outcome [30]. JEV-specific neutralizing antibodies can also be determined by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). However, this is a labor-intensive assay and is usually only available in research and reference laboratories. Although GSK2879552 price conventional nucleic acid amplification test of CSF and serum are not used to diagnose acute JE because viremia is short-lived and of low titer, recent advances in the real-time RT-PCR technology using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) could see its use in resource-poor settings [33]. Real-time RT-LAMP is rapid test and easy to perform using a single tube assay with color detection visible to the naked eye. It has a detection limit as low as 0.

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