Statistical methods Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 16.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The two groups were compared using an independent samples t-test. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to follow 25-OHD, BMC, CSA, BMD, BALP and TRACP between baseline and the 14-month visit. These time-points
were compared using contrasts. Determinants for bone analysis were identified with Pearson CB-5083 correlations. Where necessary, variables were transformed using logarithms in order to satisfy statistical assumptions of normality. Differences between groups in BMC, CSA and BMD at 14 months, as well as in ∆BMC, ∆CSA and ∆BMD (change from birth to 14 months), were tested with multivariate analysis utilizing the same confounding factors. Results are presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise
indicated. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05; p values between 0.05 and 0.10 were considered trends. Results A total of 87 children (57% boys) were followed up for 14 months. Their mean (SD) values for age, weight, height-adjusted weight, height, and height Z-score were 14.8 (0.5) months, 10.8 (1.3) kg, 0.68 (7.6)%, 78.6 (3.2) cm, and 0.11 (1.1), respectively. For data analysis, the participants were divided into two groups based on maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy. The median maternal S-25-OHD value, 42.6 nmol/l, was used as the cutoff to define two equal-sized groups of children with below-median (=Low D; mean S-25-OHD selleck products 35.7 [5.0] nmol/l) and above-median (=High D; mean S-25-OHD 54.9 [9.1] nmol/l) maternal S-25-OHD concentration. Table 1
Mocetinostat presents the background characteristics of these two groups at baseline and at the 14-month follow-up. The duration of exclusive was similar in groups (see Table 1). Eighteen children (21.7%) were still breastfed at the time of the follow-up visit. Dietary intakes G protein-coupled receptor kinase of energy, protein, vitamin D and calcium did not differ between the groups and all children had normal development. Only the age when the children started to walk with support differed between the groups; all other developmental milestones were similar. Table 1 Background characteristics and changes in them from baseline value given as mean (SD) Low D High D Independent samples t-test N 44 43 Age, months 14.9 (0.5) 14.8 (0.5) 0.336 Males, % 58 55 0.842a Anthropometric and growth variables Weight, kg 10.8 (1.3) 10.8 (1.3) 0.997 Relative weight −1.2 (8.1) 0.2 (6.7) 0.382 ∆Weight, kg 7.1 (1.1) 7.2 (1.0) 0.624 Weight velocity, g/month 475 (72) 488 (67) 0.446 Height, cm 79.0 (2.8) 78.4 (3.5) 0.386 Height Z-score 0.25 (1.0) 0.03 (1.2) 0.378 ∆Height, cm 27.9 (2.0) 27.7 (2.9) 0.732 Height velocity, cm/month 1.88 (0.12) 1.87 (0.19) 0.951 History of breast feeding and dietary intakes Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, months 4.2 (1.9) 4.3 (2.0) 0.755 Currently breastfed, N (%) 11 (26.8) 7 (16.6) 0.196a Energy intake, kcal/day 920 (220) 930 (180) 0.770 Fat intake, g/day 28.