Eventually, at the ultimate level of resolution including increas

Eventually, at the ultimate level of resolution including increasingly large regions of analysis and increasingly large numbers of individuals, every haplotype may become unique.38 It remains unknown whether the number of different, haplotypes may, at some point, reach a level of saturation, or whether their number will increase infinitely The molecular truth emerges: the fact that multiallelism may be the rule rather than the exception.10,90 Referring to the gene variability data

presented above, the number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of different, haplotypes may become unfeasibly large,29,38,90 so that, the power is not, sufficient, to detect an association of the disease phenotype or drug response with any single haplotype. Thus, this allelic complexity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical imposes tremendous challenges on the establishment of haplotypc/gcnotype-phenotypc relationships.29,38 The following key questions arise: how should genotype-phenotype

relationships be analyzed against a background of high natural genome sequence diversity? How should the important variants be filtered from the unimportant ones? Approaches to reduce this complexity and condense information on genetic variation will be required. Various approaches to the grouping, or classification, of haplotypes have been suggested. One major Fedratinib cell line approach to reduce complexity has Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been the grouping of haplotypes by evolutionary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical relatedness as the basis for association studies; this approach has been described in detail in a previous review.93 The historical information from different, haplotypes is combined to construct a cladogram that estimates how the different, haplotypes are evolutionarily related. This allows localization of functional mutational changes in the haplotype network by identification of phenotypic contrasts between sister clades. The use of an evolutionary tree as a statistical design may become difficult, when the evolutionary history

of a population may have been influenced by various forces, such as high rates of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical recombination, multiple about mutations to high susceptibility alleles, and others.29 The reconstruction of the specific evolutionary processes in general, and the construction of evolutionary trees in the presence of recombination events in particular, may become extremely difficult. – if not. unfeasible – in most, complex genetic disease studies. Another approach could be the extraction of the most frequent, haplotypes (>5%), which constitute – on the basis of preliminary results – about 51% to >90% of all haplotypes,“46,70 and subsequent evaluation, whether one of these haplotypes may occur significantly more frequently in cases than controls. This approach is based on the a priori assumption that common haplotypes play a major role in the genetics of common disease,23,94 which is a highly controversial topic.

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