10) Wasps reduced the duration of ventilation movements at highe

10). Wasps reduced the duration of ventilation movements at higher temperatures (Fig. 9). Total duration of respiration movement events was up to tenfold longer than in honeybees (42.2 vs. 4.8 s at 20 °C, 27.8 vs. 2.3 s at 25 °C; mean values, honeybee data from Kovac et al., 2007). It seems that resting yellow jackets gain their efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length of respiration movements per respiratory cycle. Therefore, they manage a considerably higher RMR (see Käfer et al., 2012) with a similar respiration frequency as honeybees (see Fig. 4). The high respiration volume and efficiency might be responsible for the rather high transition temperature

from discontinuous to cyclic respiration. Despite an overall high level Tofacitinib mw selleck chemical and a steep increase of resting metabolism with increasing ambient temperature (high Q10), resting yellow jackets maintain DGC at comparably high ambient temperatures. They breathe more ‘efficiently’ than other insects, achieving more CO2 emission per

respiration cycle at comparable respiration frequencies. Abdominal ventilation movements at rest were not uniform pumping movements but also included movements of legs antennae and wings, and lateral flipping of the abdomen. Results suggest that respiration efficiency was increased by long duration of these ventilation movements. The research was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P20802-B16, P25042-B16. We greatly appreciate the help with electronics by G. Stabentheiner and with data evaluation by M. Bodner, M. Brunnhofer, M. Fink, P. Kirchberger, A. Lienhard, L. Mirwald and A. Settari. We

also thank W. Schappacher for his help in clarifying some quirks with data conversion, two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and the editor D.L. Denlinger. “
“The defense response to infection in insets is in part mediated by the hemocytes. This cellular response includes phagocytosis, hemocyte aggregation around the invader (nodulation), and formation of a multicellular capsule involving Phospholipase D1 the invader (encapsulation). The cellular response is often accompanied by a humoral response which relies on enzyme cascades for hemolymph coagulation, activation of the phenoloxidase system in hemolymph leading to melanization and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. In addition, several antibacterial peptides induced by infection in the hemocytes and fat body are secreted into the hemolymph (as reviewed by Gillespie et al., 1997 and Marmaras and Lampropoulou, 2009). The limitations of the immune response due to its physiological cost have been described in insects; indeed, mobilizing available resources to combat infection often comes at the expense of other needs (Schmid-Hempel, 2005). For example, Drosophila females exposed to dead bacteria lay fewer eggs, presumably because resources for egg production are redirected to synthesizing defense molecules ( Zerofsky et al., 2005).

ZEA has strong estrogenic effects and it is mainly distributed in

ZEA has strong estrogenic effects and it is mainly distributed in reproductive organs, particularly uterus and ovaries. ZEA and its metabolites have been shown to bind competitively to estrogen receptors (ER α and ER β) in a number of in vitro or in vivo systems and to activate transcription of estrogen responsive genes ( Mehmood et al., 2000; Turcotte et al., 2005). So, it is frequently implicated in hyperestrogenism

and other reproductive disorders in laboratory and farm animals ( Green et al., 1990; Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987; Lopez et al., 1988; Minervini and Dell’Aquila, 2008). In humans, ZEA was associated to precocious pubertal changes, endometrial adenocarcinoma and hyperplasia in women ( Tomaszewski et al., 1998). Moreover, ZEA was found to be hepatotoxic, to disturb haematological parameters, and it was associated to Dabrafenib order several alterations of immunological parameters in humans and rodents ( Abid-Essefi et al., 2004; Hassen et al., 2007). In experimental chronic studies, ZEA caused alterations in the reproductive tract of laboratory animals (mice, rats, and pigs) and farm animals. It decreased fertility, reduced Obeticholic Acid litter size, changed weight of adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands and changed serum levels of progesterone and estradiol ( EFSA, 2004). Moreover, it has

been demonstrated that while small amounts of ROS have been shown to be required for several functions of spermatozoa, their excessive levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity ( Tvrda et al., 2011). Regarding male fertility, increased levels of ROS have been correlated with decreased sperm motility ( Eskenazi et al., 2003), increased sperm DNA damage ( Armstrong et al., 1999), sperm

cellular membrane lipid peroxidation ( Aitken, 1995). Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the acute effects of ZEA on male Olopatadine reproductive system and fertility and the possible association of oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of a single acute dose of ZEA on reproductive and hematological parameters, as well as on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes of mice. Twenty male Swiss albino mice (25–30 g in weight and 90 days old) from our own breeding colony were used. Animals were housed in groups of 5 in Plexiglas cages (41 cm × 34 cm × 16 cm) with the floor covered with sawdust. They were kept in a room with light–dark cycle of 12 h with the lights on between 7:00 and 19:00 h and temperature controlled (20–25 °C) and received water and food ad libitum. The animals were maintained and used in accordance with the guidelines of the Committee on Care and Use of Experimental Animal Resources (process #071/2011) of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.

The use of this tool in the clinician setting is recent We prese

The use of this tool in the clinician setting is recent. We present our experience of 13 years in musculoskeletal ultrasound. We scanned about 25,437 patients, whereby most of them complained about different musculoskeletal acute and chronic problems. (1) To provide an overview on 13 years experience on patients with musculoskeletal disorders in outdoor clinic of our department, Lahore, Pakistan. We Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, Sirolimus Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9 and Figure 10 25,437 symptomatic patients coming from all over Pakistan

including 18,715 males and 6722 females from 1 month to 85 years of age. We used two ultrasound equipments with a multi-frequency (6–14 MHz) linear Veliparib datasheet probe to perform studies in patients with possible musculoskeletal system problems. Age, gender, previous diagnosis and morbidity were registered. Our study included 12,072 patients with shoulder complaints, out of which 10,822 had some pathology whereas the remaining patients were normal. The main pathologies were bilateral supraspinatous complete tear, unilateral superspinatous

complete tear (67% right, 33% left), maximum partial tear of supraspinatous, minimum partial tear of supraspinatous, partial tear of supraspinatous with subacromial impingment, subacromial impingment with tendonitis of supraspinatous, bilateral complete tear of subscapularis, pheromone unilateral complete tear of subscapularis, partial tear of subscapularis, bilateral complete tear of infraspinatous, unilateral complete tear of infraspinatous, partial tear of infraspinatous, tendonitis of infraspinatous, bilateral complete tear of long head of biceps, unilateral complete tear of long head of biceps, partial tear of long

head of biceps, effusion around long head of biceps, subluxation of long head of biceps, dislocation of long head of biceps, teres minor complete tear, teres minor partial tear, acute subacromial-subdeltoid (SASD) bursitis, chronic SASD bursitis, AC joint pathologies, AC ligament pathologies, anterior labrum pathologies, posterior labrum pathologies, synovitis of rotator cuff tendons, tenosynovitis of rotator cuff tendons, partially healed tendons of rotator cuff, chronic tendonitis of rotator cuff, tendomuscular junctions, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, transverse humeral ligament pathologies and soft tissue pathologies. The total number of cases of elbow scanned were 2355, out of which 2198 had pathologies including tendon tear, tendonitis, tenosynovitis, bursal pathologies, ligament pathologies, soft tissue pathologies, and vascular pathologies whereas in wrist and hand we scanned 2136 patients out of which 2086 had pathologies of wrist and hand like soft tissues, synovitis, tenosynovitis, acute tendonitis, chronic tendonitis, hood injury, trigger finger, foreign bodies, nail bud pathologies, vascular pathologies.

, 2008 and Puntel et al , 2007) In line with this, literature da

, 2008 and Puntel et al., 2007). In line with this, literature data have indicated that these compounds can provide protective effect against lipid peroxidation induced by a variety of pro-oxidants agents (Barbosa et al., 2006, Barbosa et al., 2008, Moretto et al., 2007, Nogueira and Rocha, 2010, Nogueira and Rocha, 2011, Parnham and Graf, 1991,

Puntel et al., 2007 and Rossato et al., 2002). The antioxidant activity of these organochalcogens has been ascribed either to their glutathione peroxidase-like activity (Maiorino et al., 1988, Santos et al., 2005, Sies, 1993 and Sies, selleck screening library 1995) or to the fact that they can be substrates of mammalian thioredoxin reductase (de Freitas and Rocha, 2011, Sausen de Freitas et al., 2010, Zhao and Holmgren, 2002 and Zhao et al., 2002). Thus, in order to exert antioxidant properties, the selenium containing compounds have to be metabolized to selenol/selenolate intermediates, a reaction which can be accomplished via reduction of the Se moiety by different types of thiols (Nogueira and Rocha, 2011 and Wendel et al., 1984) (Scheme 1). For organotellurium compounds, it has been postulated that the antioxidant activity is linked to changes in the oxidation state of the Te atom (Te(II) ↔ Te(IV)) (Engman et al., 1995, Leonard et al., 1996 and You et al., 2003). Thus, the thiol-peroxidase or thioredoxin-thiol-peroxidase-like

activity of organochalcogens (Nogueira and Rocha, 2011, Sausen de Freitas et al., 2010, Zhao and Holmgren, 2002 and Zhao et al., 2002) can be of biological and therapeutic significance EPZ015666 datasheet via artificial modulation of the cellular levels of peroxides. However, the excessive oxidation of thiols, including those in mitochondrial membranes, by organochalcogens without a concomitant reduction of peroxides may be toxic to living cells (thiol-oxidation activity) (Nogueira and Rocha, 2011 and Puntel et al., 2010) (Scheme 1). In effect, mitochondrial

dysfunction caused by thiol oxidation is closely related to the apoptotic cell death (Morin about et al., 2003 and Zhao et al., 2006). Accordingly, the organochalcogens should be considered as putative candidates for apoptotic cell death inducer via mitochondrial dysfunction, which may explain, at least in part, their pharmacological/toxicological action (Ardais et al., 2010, Nogueira and Rocha, 2010, Santos et al., 2009a and Santos et al., 2009b). In line with this, recently our group showed that both Ebselen (Ebs) and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] induced mitochondrial dysfunction via interaction with critical mitochondria thiols (Puntel et al., 2010). Considering that mitochondrial complexes play a central role in cellular metabolism and in the regulation of apoptotic cell death, we sought to determine whether these mitochondrial complexes could be considered molecular targets for the thiol-oxidation activity of Ebs, (PhSe)2 or diphenyl ditelluride [(PhTe)2].

5 × 10−3; diluted in paraffin; v/v) was added to a wick Five min

5 × 10−3; diluted in paraffin; v/v) was added to a wick. Five minutes later the wick was enclosed in an oven bag as described before and scent was subsequently collected for 2 min (two replicates). All samples collected were kept frozen (−20 °C)

until analysis. For identification of trapped volatiles, headspace samples were analysed on a Varian Saturn 2000 mass spectrometer coupled to a Varian 3800 Apitolisib gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a 1079 injector (Varian Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA), which had been fitted with the ChromatoProbe kit (Amirav and Dagan, 1997 and Dötterl et al., 2005a). Samples were directly inserted in the injector by means of the ChromatoProbe and analysed by thermal desorption. For all samples, the injector split vent was opened and the injector heated to 40 °C to flush any air from the system. The split vent was closed after 2 min, and the injector was heated at a rate of 200 °C/min to 200 °C, then held at 200 °C for 4.2 min, after which the split vent was opened and the injector cooled down. Separations were

achieved with a fused silica column ZB-5 (5% phenyl polysiloxane; 60 m long, inner diameter 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm, Phenomenex). Electronic flow control was used to maintain a constant helium carrier gas flow of 1.0 mL min−1. The GC oven temperature was held for 7 min Metabolism inhibitor at 40 °C, then increased by 6 °C per min to 250 °C and held for 1 min. The interface to the mass spectrometer worked at 260 °C and the ion trap at 175 °C. Mass spectra were

taken at 70 eV (in EI mode) with a scanning speed of 1 scan s−1 from m/z 30 to 350. The GC–MS data were processed using the Saturn Software package 5.2.1. Identification of compounds was carried out using the NIST 08, Wiley 7, and Adams 2007 mass spectral data bases, or the data base provided in MassFinder NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase 3, and confirmed by comparison of retention times with published data (Adams, 2007). Structure assignment of individual components was confirmed by comparison of both mass spectra and GC retention times with those of authentic standards. To determine the total amount of scent trapped, known amounts of monoterpenes, aliphatics, and aromatics were injected into the GC–MS system. Mean peak areas of these compounds were used to determine the total amount of scent (for more details see Dötterl et al., 2005a). By applying this method, the mean values (two replicates) for the amount of scent trapped from the wicks used for bioassays (1:1:1 diluted in paraffin, at overall 0.5 × 10−3; see below) were determined to be 2721 ng per hour of 4-oxoisophorone (extrapolated based on the 2 min collections), 229 ng of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 2 ng of (E)-cinnamyl alcohol. These differences in trapping/emission rates have to do with methodological/technical issues, such as the solubility in paraffin and the vapour pressure of the compounds.

The tubes were incubated at 37 °C for 15 min, and the absorption

The tubes were incubated at 37 °C for 15 min, and the absorption at 505 nm was measured in a cuvette. The following buffers were used in the assays: 0.1 M acetic acid/NaOH PD0325901 clinical trial (pH 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5),

0.1 M MES/NaOH (pH 6.0, 6.5 or 7.0) and 0.1 M HEPES/NaOH (pH 7.5, 8.0 or 8.5). The blanks were prepared using heat-inactivated samples (2 min in boiling water). Isomaltose was assayed at pH 6.5 using this protocol. For calculations, a standard curve was obtained with different quantities of glucose dissolved in 10 μL of water and reacted with 1 mL of PAP reagent according the method above described. Five insects were dissected in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl. Each intestine was cut into four pieces (anterior midgut, middle midgut, posterior midgut

and hindgut), which were transferred to four different micro centrifuge tubes containing 500 μL of 0.9% (w/v) NaCl and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100. After homogenization, the tubes were centrifuged at 14,000×g for 10 min at 4 °C, and the supernatant was used in the assays. Maltose or trehalose were used as substrates and assayed as described in Section 2.3.2 at pH 6.5 and pH 6.0, respectively. The samples were prepared as described in Section 2.2.3 and assayed using maltose (pH 6.5) or trehalose (pH 6.0) as substrates according the methodology described in Section 2.3.2. To investigate whether the enzymes are bound to intestinal microvilli, the larval microvilli were purified according to the method of Abdul-Rauf and Ellar (1999). Sixty larvae were dissected in 0.9% saline (w/v), the luminal content http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/hydroxychloroquine-sulfate.html ALK signaling pathway was discarded, and the midgut walls were washed and transferred to 40 μL of an ice-cold MET solution (300 mM mannitol, 5 mM EGTA, 17 mM TRIS-base/HCl, pH 7.5) in a micro centrifuge tube. The midguts were manually homogenized with an abrasive glass microhomogenizer for 15 min in an ice bath, and the volume was brought to 100 μL with the same solution. One hundred microliters

of ice-cold 24 mM MgCl2 was added to this preparation and the tube content was mixed and separated into two aliquots of 100 μL each. After 20 min on ice, one of the aliquots was centrifuged at 2500×g for 15 min at 4 °C. The supernatant was collected in another tube, and the pellet was rehomogenized in 100 μL of a fresh ice-cold MET/MgCl2 (1:1) solution and centrifuged. After repeating this procedure three times, the supernatants were mixed and centrifuged at 25,000×g for 30 min at 4 °C. The pellet, enriched with microvillosites, was dissolved in 100 μL of MET/MgCl2 (1:1) containing 1% Triton X-100 (v/v). Triton X-100 was also added to the non-centrifuged aliquot to a final concentration of 1% (v/v) and mixed. Both the centrifuged and non-centrifuged aliquots were centrifuged at 14,000×g, and the supernatants were used for the assays.

Among single elicitation treatments, SA at a concentration of 500

Among single elicitation treatments, SA at a concentration of 500 μM and MeSA at concentrations greater than 300 μM, besides GLU, decreased cell growth. In the treatment with 500 μM SA and 600 μM MeSA, the dry cell weight (DCW) at day 10 decreased by approximately 30%, when compared with the control (Table 1). The DCW decrease by GLU did not significantly affect the total intracellular phenolics. Whereas, SA and MeSA at those high concentrations dramatically reduced the intracellular phenolics while increasing the extracellular counterpart Selleck Epacadostat (Table 1), indicating the release of phenolics components, probably due to broken cells. As

anthocyanins are stored in vacuoles, and their biosynthesis is related to that of resveratrol, the intracellular production of these secondary metabolites was evaluated at the same time. JA was the only elicitor in this study that increased the production of selleck kinase inhibitor both intracellular resveratrol (Fig. 1A) and anthocyanins (Fig. 1B). Curtin et al. [22] also reported the enhancement of anthocyanin biosynthesis in V. vinifera L. cell suspension cultures by JA and in combination with light irradiation. JA might activate the phenylpropanoid pathway, which provide substrates for both anthocyanin and resveratrol syntheses. As a result, total phenolics yield was increased several

fold by the JA treatment ( Table 1). The addition of JA was found to initiate the de novo transcription of genes responsible for the production of enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway [23]. SA at concentrations of 10 μM and 100 μM at least doubled the production of intracellular resveratrol at day 10 ( Fig. 2A). However, when SA was combined with JA, a negative effect was observed. Demeclocycline SA was previously proposed to inhibit the synthesis and signal transduction of JA [24]. The addition of CHI – a derivative of chitin – increased the level of intracellular resveratrol by around fivefold at day 7 (Fig. 2B). However, the difference in the level of intracellular resveratrol between the elicited cultures and the control was smaller at day 10. At much

higher concentrations, CHI was also found to increase the intracellular accumulation of resveratrol from 3 to 10.5-fold in V. vinifera cv. Barbera cell cultures [25]. Both chitin and glucan are major structural components of many fungi, and they are known to increase the accumulation of soluble pathogenesis-related proteins in plants [26]. Therefore, as is the case with CHI, the treatment with GLU at all tested concentrations increased the level of intracellular resveratrol by 5–7-fold at day 7 when compared with the control (Fig. 3A). Different from JA effects, GLU treatment lowered the production of anthocyanins (Fig. 3B). Stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase – the branch-point enzymes of the biosynthetic pathways of stilbenes and anthocyanins – are known to use the same substrates [1].

Papers of particular interest, published within the period of rev

Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted

as: • of special interest “
“Performing reaction sequences in one pot in a sequential or even simultaneous fashion avoids time-consuming or yield-reducing isolation and purification of the intermediates [1 and 2]; as a consequence the amount of chemicals/solvents required for extraction/purification of intermediates is minimised leading to an improved E factor [3]. Cascades involving reduction Selleck Epigenetic inhibitor as well as oxidation steps are still a challenge due to the diverging reaction conditions. Since in living cells oxidation and reduction processes are performed simultaneously, enzymes are probably the perfect catalysts to be exploited for synthetic redox cascade applications [4]. In this review, artificial cascades involving an oxidation step followed by a reduction step, or vice versa, will be discussed, whereby at least one redox step is catalysed by an enzyme. The focus is on cascades published during the past 4 years. Cascades employing fermenting cells or involving in vivo metabolism will not be discussed as well as concepts for cofactor/cosubstrate recycling; furthermore, cascades involving the catalase-promoted disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide are out of scope. The easiest approach to performing such

redox cascades is to run the first redox reaction TCL until completion and then start the second step by adding the required reagents; thus, the two steps are separated by Antidiabetic Compound Library research buy time but performed in the same pot. More challenging is to run the two redox reactions at the same time, thus simultaneously in one pot. Here two cases can be distinguished: The simpler case is that the oxidation and the reduction steps are working independently of each other; thus, reagents for the oxidation step as well as for the reduction step are required. The more demanding case is that the oxidation and reduction steps are interconnected: it would

be desirable that the formal electrons gained in the oxidation step are consumed in the reduction step. This represents a redox neutral cascade; thus, in an ideal case no additional reducing or oxidising agents are required. Consequently, the review was subdivided into the following subsections (Figure 1): (1a) simultaneous redox neutral oxidation–reduction cascades, (1b) simultaneous independent redox cascades in one pot and (2) subsequent oxidation–reduction cascades performed in one pot but separated by time. The (bio)catalysts working in concert in simultaneous oxidation–reduction cascades can be regarded as an interactive catalyst network. In the special case of redox neutral cascades, it represents an interconnected catalyst network.

Cellulose whiskers obtained from coconut husk fibers have shown t

Cellulose whiskers obtained from coconut husk fibers have shown to be comparable to those from cotton fibers in terms of their positive effects on the

film properties, in spite of their remaining lignin, Epigenetic inhibition probably because of their higher aspect ratios when compared to those from cotton fibers. The films can be used as edible coatings for several foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, extending their shelf life. Moreover, alginate-acerola films without cellulose whiskers can be consumed as snacks, since such an application does not require great mechanical or barrier properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of CNPq and Embrapa. Author H.M.C. Azeredo thanks CNPq for the Research Productivity Fellowship. “
“Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been characterized as a master regulator of the cellular energy state, and it is known to regulate both lipid and glucose metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase is activated in response to changes in high-energy phosphate concentrations through

its AMP- and adenosine diphosphate–sensing domains. In general terms, activation of AMPK results in the inhibition of adenosine triphosphate consuming processes such as lipogenesis and protein synthesis and the activation of processes important for adenosine triphosphate synthesis such as β oxidation and glucose uptake (See review [1]). Current efforts are underway to find effective activators of AMPK as a treatment for diseases associated with insulin resistance Obeticholic Acid cell line (IR), such as type

II diabetes. The commonly prescribed diabetes drug metformin, for example, is a well characterized activator of AMPK [2]. In addition to pharmacologic agents, certain dietary factors may potentiate or inhibit AMPK signaling. Understanding the impact of different nutrients or dietary supplements on AMPK signaling and glucose control is important for long-term maintenance of healthy glucose and lipid metabolism. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient, which plays an important role in redox reactions, especially in enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase [3]. Research on Se supplementation has supported Celecoxib its chemopreventive efficacy to be substantial for prostate cancer [4], [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. Interestingly, supplementation of inorganic Se compounds has also been shown to alter glucose metabolism [10] in preclinical models. The effects of Se on glucose metabolism depend on the form of dose administered. For example, 2 inorganic forms of Se, selenate and selenite, affect glucose management in opposite ways. Selenate decreases IR [10] and [11] and in some ways can be considered an insulin mimetic [12]. Alternatively, selenite seems to interfere with insulin signaling [13], contributing to increased IR.

It is conceivable that the apex/bulbomembranous urethra is gettin

It is conceivable that the apex/bulbomembranous urethra is getting a higher dose owing to the needle or catheter shift. However, since September 2005, and the entire time of delivering 19 Gy/2, we have initiated prefraction CT imaging to assess caudal movement buy NVP-BKM120 and replanning if caudal movement was greater than 1 cm. In fact, since August 2008, replanning the second

fraction with CT imaging became standard. It seems unlikely that caudal needle movement has any causal relationship with strictures, given the strictures occurred when caudal movement was less likely. However, we did not analyze the site of the urethral hot spot. Conceivably, an apical “hot” region, associated with caudal movement, is a plausible explanation for stricture formation at or below the apex. Many other factors have been implicated in increasing the risk for

urethral stricture selleck screening library following HDRB, yet few are consistent. A TURP before brachytherapy has been commonly associated with stricture formation in many series [13], [23], [24] and [25]. In this current series, there was no correlation between a stricture and previous TURP. Other clinical factors such as age, hypertension, and baseline IPSS score have been, less consistently, implicated as predictors of stricture formation [13], [14] and [26]. One of the difficulties in reporting stricture rate is its very definition as a late toxicity. Using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse PIK3C2G Events version 3, the

definition of a stricture as an adverse event is dependent on a urological intervention, such as dilatation or urethrotomy. Different urologists may have a lower threshold to investigate and intervene in patients presenting with urological obstructive symptoms. The referral pathways and urologist involvement in followup would also influence the diagnosis of stricture. We think it is possible that the true stricture rate is underestimated owing to this definition and the practicalities of capturing these incidents. In addition, this definition does not provide any useful grading for the severity of a stricture adverse event. A surrogate for severity may be to look at the type of procedure or the number of repeat procedures. The type of procedure used is subjective and depends on the urologist’s preference and skills, rather than a true indicator of severity. Although repeat procedures are also subject to the urologist’s intervention threshold, it is a reasonable marker of stricture severity. In our study, 10 (22%) patients needed a repeat procedure and of these only 3 (6.7%) needed more than two procedures. Our rate of repeat procedures is similar to other LDR and HDR series [13] and [26]. Many patients, who develop urethral strictures, learn self-catheterization. This procedure may impact on quality of life, more so than a one-off urethrotomy. However, we did not capture the self-catheterization rate as reliably as urethrotomy/dilatation.