The cakes acceptability shown as means (Table 4) indicates that t

The cakes acceptability shown as means (Table 4) indicates that the cakes with inulin, with oligofructose/inulin and standard cake were as widely accepted as the commercial, while the preference check details mapping (Fig. 3B) shows a preference for cakes developed in this work. Addition of the prebiotics inulin and oligofructose changes the attributes of crust

brownness, dough beigeness, stickiness, hardness and crumbliness of the standard cake, independent of the type of prebiotic. The acceptability and preference among consumers are similar for the orange cakes with prebiotics and the standard cake, and higher than for the commercially produced orange cakes. Therefore, addition of prebiotics to orange cakes is feasible, based upon sensory results, which click here may facilitate marketing of this functional food with sensory qualities equivalent to conventional products. The authors are grateful for financial support from FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – grant 2010/00996-0), from Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa da Unesp and for inulin and oligofructose provided by BENEO-Orafti. We thank David R. M. Mercer for English language review. “
“Many vegetables are source of several chemical compounds with

high importance to folk and modern medicine. The consumption of such foods (Kurzer & Xu, 1997) has been increasing steadily, and the food industries are concentrating more and more their attention to functional food types. U.S. market for functional foods, as estimated by the Nutrition Business Journal, may reach US$ 60 billion by 2010 (Henry, 1999). Soybeans [Glycine max (Merrill) L.] and soy-based foods have long been consumed mainly by Asians, and Bumetanide have become very popular due to their good quality protein and oil content ( Wang & Murphy, 1994). Soybean is an important food crop, and Brazil is a major producer of the soybean-complex (protein–oil–flour) ( CONAB, 2003). The benefits of soybean to human health have long been known and are widely recognized around the world. Soybean provides

potential benefits for several human diseases due to positive effects of several of its chemical components, mainly isoflavones and proteins. These natural constituents of soybeans display important biological activities, such as anticarcinogens, blood glucose lowering, and antioxidant ( Lee et al., 2003). More recently, attention has been paid to the isoflavone analysis of soy-based products (Fig. 1) and to the behavior of isoflavones during the variety of food processing technologies. During soybean protein processes, the malonylglucoside isoflavones are transformed to glucoside forms, and after the enzyme treatment it may be converted into aglycones (Park et al., 2002, Park et al., 2001 and Park et al., 2001). There are indications that the aglycone forms might be more bioactive (Grün et al., 2001) than their parent molecules. However, isoflavone profiles should greatly depend on the extent and level of heating during soy processing.

While the levels of 137Cs in the affected region prior to the acc

While the levels of 137Cs in the affected region prior to the accident ranged from 0.68 to 1.7 Bq/kg (dry weight) (MEXT, 2011), values of several hundred Bq/kg are now common. The total inventory of 137Cs accumulated in the upper

3 cm of surface sediments off the Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures has been estimated to be 3.78 × 1013 Bq (Kusakabe et al., 2013), which is 0.9–1.4% of the total 137Cs flux from the PD0325901 order plant to the ocean estimated by Tsumune et al. (2012). The distribution of 137Cs on the seafloor determined from samples obtained off Fukushima shows considerable spatial variability in concentration, exhibiting no obvious correlation with proximity to the F1NPP. While remobilization of surface layers and local heterogeneity in the physical CTLA-4 antibody and chemical characteristics of the sediments have been identified as potential causes for the variability seen (Otosaka and Kobayashi, 2013), it has been

pointed out that sediment mineralogy alone cannot completely account for the spatial distribution of 137Cs in the sediments (Kusakabe et al., 2013). Furthermore, since the information obtained through sampling is discrete, with points often separated by several tens of kilometers, it is possible that variations in concentration exist on spatial scales that have not been captured through sampling. While this is not a problem in areas where it has been demonstrated that the levels of seafloor radiation change gradually (Thornton et al., 2013), the local scale distribution of radioactive material on the seafloor

following the accident is largely unknown. The lack of information raises concerns regarding our ability to predict the effects of Florfenicol the accident on the marine ecosystem and limits our ability to form effective recovery strategies. In this work, we apply in situ measurement techniques to map the continuous distribution of 137Cs on the seafloor, and reveal the existence of a number of local 137Cs anomalies within 20 km of F1NPP. The size and distribution of these anomalies is closely related to meter scale features of the seafloor terrain, and the concentrations of 137Cs are often more than an order of magnitude higher than in the surrounding regions. The existence of these anomalies should be taken into account when planning future survey efforts, and when considering the potential effects of 137Cs on marine ecology. The instrument used in this work consists of a gamma ray spectrometer contained within a flexible rubber hose that is towed along the seafloor by a ship, as illustrated in Fig. 1 (Jones, 2001). The instrument, called the RESQ hose (RESQ: Radiometric Environment Survey and Quantification), is 8 m long with an external diameter of 0.145 m and weighs 135 kg in air and 115 kg in water.

94) The cell counts obtained for each ROI in the different secti

94). The cell counts obtained for each ROI in the different sections of each animal were averaged to calculate the mean number of c-Fos-positive cells within a particular brain region of that animal. These average

values/brain region of each animal were used for statistical analysis. Statistical evaluation of the results Enzalutamide molecular weight was made with SPSS 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). In general, the data were analyzed by one-way or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), as appropriate, in some cases for repeated measurements. Two-way ANOVA was performed with the NOD agonists (VEH, MDP, FK565) and LPS (VEH, LPS) as the between subject variables in order to reveal significant main factor effects or interactions denoted as NOD × LPS interactions. The homogeneity of variances was assessed with the Levene test. In case of sphericity violations the Greenhouse–Geisser correction was applied. Post-ANOVA analysis of group differences was performed with the Tukey HSD (honestly significant difference) test, when the variances were homogeneous, and with the Games–Howell test, when the variances were unequal. In

case of a non-parametric distribution of the parameters, statistical differences among groups were determined with the Kruskal–Wallis test and post-hoc analysis of group differences was performed with the Mann–Whitney test. p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni correction. Probability values of p < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant and p < 0.1 were regarded Akt inhibitor as a trend. All data are presented as means + SEM, n referring to the number of mice in each group. MDP, FK565 and LPS altered locomotion, exploration, food intake and SP in a compound-, combination- and time-dependent manner (Fig. 2). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of NOD (VEH, MDP, FK565) × LPS (VEH, LPS) × time (days post-treatment) for the variation in locomotion

(F(5.661,116.05) = 2.457, p < 0.05). The same was true for exploratory behavior (F(5.250,110.25) = 2.470, p < 0.05). Likewise, there was a significant NOD × LPS × time interaction for the differences in food intake (F(5.025,105.52) = 5.244, p < 0.001). SP depended on time (F(1.130,39.55) = 27.838, p < 0.001), with a significant interaction Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) with LPS (F(1.130,39.55) = 18.397, p < 0.001) and an interaction with the NOD agonists by trend (F(2.260,39.55) = 2.339, p = 0.10). Post-hoc analysis revealed significant NOD × LPS interactions on day 1 and 2 post-treatment. While MDP (1 mg/kg) and FK565 (0.001 mg/kg) alone did not induce any significant changes in locomotion, LPS (0.1 mg/kg) led to a decrease of locomotion for 2 days after injection when compared with the VEH-treated group. Combination of MDP + LPS attenuated locomotion compared to treatment with MDP or LPS alone during day 1 and 2 post-treatment (Fig. 2A). Likewise, the combination of FK565 + LPS significantly decreased locomotion when compared with FK565 or LPS alone.

Index 427 “
“Cynthia Bautista Michelle VanDemark


Index 427 “
“Cynthia Bautista Michelle VanDemark

Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that can be infected by bacteria, virus, or fungus. The classic triad of bacterial meningitis consists LY294002 purchase of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status; headache is also another common symptom. Interventions for bacterial meningitis include prompt diagnosis, and initiation of antimicrobial therapy to optimize bacterial kill and decrease inflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. Nursing management consists of effective delivery of antibiotic therapy, fluid management, and supportive care. Misti Tuppeny Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element Ipilimumab between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date. Tess Slazinski A brain abscess is defined as a localized collection of pus within the parenchyma

of the brain or meninges. Brain abscesses are a complication of ear, sinus, and/or dental infections. Although they may occur in many brain locations, the most common sites are frontal and temporal lobes. Modern neuroimaging and laboratory analysis have led to prompt diagnosis and have decreased the mortality rates from brain abscess. Critical care nurses have a vital role in performing accurate neurologic assessments, timely administration of

antibiotics, and management of fever. Katherine G. Johnson Spinal epidural abscess is a rare bacterial infection located within the spinal canal. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment are important because of its potential to Meloxicam cause rapidly progressive spinal cord compression and irreversible paralysis. A staphylococcus bacterial infection is the cause in most cases. Treatment includes antibiotics and possible surgical drainage of the abscess. A favorable neurologic outcome correlates with the severity and duration of neurologic deficits before surgery and the timeliness of the chosen intervention. It is important for the critical care nurse to monitor the patient’s neurologic status and provide appropriate interventions. Mary McKenna Guanci An infection of the ventricular system of the brain is referred to as ventriculitis. The signs and symptoms of ventriculitis include the triad of altered mental status, fever, and headache, as seen in the patient with meningitis.

(Category 1) Parents of school-going age should be considered for

(Category 1) Parents of school-going age should be considered for an individual

education plan (IEP) based on the individual TAND profile. (Category 2A) At the time of diagnosis, abdominal imaging should be obtained regardless of age. As for brain, MRI is the preferred modality for evaluation of angiomyolipomata because many can be fat-poor and hence missed when abdominal CT or US are performed.23 MRI of the abdomen may be combined in the same session as MRI of the brain, thereby limiting the need for multiple sessions of anesthesia selleck inhibitor if anesthesia is needed for successful MRI. MRI of the abdomen may also reveal aortic aneurysms or extrarenal hamartomas of the liver, pancreas, and other abdominal organs that also can occur in individuals with TSC. In addition to imaging, accurate blood pressure assessment is important because of increased risk of secondary hypertension.

To assess renal function at time of diagnosis, blood tests to determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using creatinine equations for adults24 and 25 or children.26 Alternatively, measurement of serum cystatin C concentration can be used to evaluate GFR.27 (Category 1) To evaluate for LAM, females 18 years or older should have baseline pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk test, and high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT). When possible, low-radiation protocols should be used. A serum vascular endothelial growth factor type D (VEGF-D) level may be helpful to establish a baseline for future LAM development or progression.28 and 29 MS-275 molecular weight Counseling on smoking risks and estrogen use (such as some oral contraceptive preparations), which can compound the impact of LAM, should also occur in adolescents and adults. (Category 2A) All patients should undergo a detailed clinical dermatologic and dental exam at time of diagnosis to evaluate for facial angiofibromas, Metformin solubility dmso fibrous cephalic plaques, hypomelanotic macules or confetti lesions, ungual fibromas, shagreen patch,

defects in tooth enamel, and intraoral fibroma. (Category 2A) In pediatric patients, especially younger than three years of age, an echocardiogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) should be obtained to evaluate for rhabdomyomas and arrhythmia, respectively. In those individuals with rhabdomyomas identified via prenatal ultrasound, fetal echocardiogram may be useful to detect those individuals with high risk of heart failure after delivery. (Category 1) In the absence of cardiac symptoms or concerning medical history, echocardiogram is not necessary in adults, but as conduction defects may still be present and may influence medication choice and dosing,30 a baseline ECG is still recommended. (Category 2A) A baseline ophthalmologic evaluation, including funduscopic evaluation, is recommended for all individuals diagnosed with TSC to evaluate for hamartomas and hypopigmented lesions of the retina.

More information is needed to determine if repeated exposure is t

More information is needed to determine if repeated exposure is toxic, if animals become Birinapant supplier habituated, or if consumption is only related to the availability of alternative forage. This work was funded by the National Institute of Science and Technology for Control of Plants Poisoning, CNPq grant number 573534/2008-0. The author acknowledges Prof. Odaci de Oliveira, Federal University of the Semiarid (UFERSA), for identifying the Jatropha species.

“The 17th World Congress of the International Society on Toxinology (IST) and Venom Week 2012 (4th International Scientific Symposium on All Things Venomous) are being combined into a multi-disciplinary scientific meeting on animal, plant and microbial toxins. The meeting will be held July 8 – 13, 2012, in Honolulu, Hawaii at the Hilton Hawaiian Village, a world-class hotel, right on Waikiki beach, and with special conference rates. The meeting will contain state-of-the-art toxinological research and practice, with platform

and poster sessions on animal, plant and microbial toxinology, proteomics, genomics, pharmacology, pathophysiology, venoms, antivenoms, clinical toxinology, veterinary Vemurafenib solubility dmso toxinology, venomous animal collections issues, and more! The meeting website can be found at: “
“The 17th World Congress of the International Society on Toxinology (IST) and Venom Week 2012 (4th International Scientific Symposium on All Things Venomous) are being combined into a multi-disciplinary scientific meeting on animal, plant and microbial toxins. The meeting will be held July 8 – 13, 2012, in Honolulu, Hawaii at the Hilton Hawaiian Village, a world-class hotel, right on Waikiki selleck compound beach, and with special conference rates. The meeting will contain state-of-the-art toxinological research and practice, with platform and

poster sessions on animal, plant and microbial toxinology, proteomics, genomics, pharmacology, pathophysiology, venoms, antivenoms, clinical toxinology, veterinary toxinology, venomous animal collections issues, and more! The meeting website can be found at: “
“Bothrops alcatraz is a pitviper found only in the Alcatrazes Archipelago, off the northern coast of São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. This species feeds primarily on invertebrates (centipedes) and vertebrates (amphibians) since these islands are devoid of small rodents, the main prey of mainland Bothrops spp. B. alcatraz differs from Bothrops jararaca primarily by its darker coloration, lower number of ventral, subcaudal, and infralabial scales, number and shape of anterior cephalic scales, shape of hemipenal spines and body size ( Marques et al., 2002). As a geographically and ecologically isolated species, B. alcatraz has a high potential for morphological variation and divergence in its venom composition compared to other Bothrops species.

Rodrigues e J Velosa já participaram em Advisory Boards da Gilea

Rodrigues e J. Velosa já participaram em Advisory Boards da Gilead. I. Joseph, D. Vanness e N. Revankar são empregados da United Biosource Corporation empresa contratada pela Gilead Sciences para desenvolver o modelo. J. Perelman foi contratado pela Gilead Sciences para estimar os custos da doença. F. Aragão é consultora de avaliação económica para a Gilead Sciences. O estudo foi desenvolvido pela empresa

United BioSource Corporation. O Professor Julian Perelman foi responsável pela estimação dos custos. A Dra. Filipa Aragão colaborou na redação do artigo. Os restantes Daporinad ic50 autores, enquanto membros do painel de peritos, colaboraram na definição dos pressupostos, das fontes de informação e na redação do artigo. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A colonoscopia é um exame fundamental no estudo do cólon sendo, na maioria dos casos, segura e bem tolerada. A sua eficácia depende de uma visualização adequada e cuidadosa de toda a mucosa. A preparação intestinal é um indicador de qualidade da colonoscopia, interferindo com a capacidade de realização de exame completo, com a duração do procedimento e com os intervalos de vigilância1. A má qualidade da preparação continua a ser um problema na prática clínica, estimando-se que ocorra em 10 a 25% dos exames1, 2, 3 and 4. Uma preparação

inadequada prolonga o tempo de intubação e de retirada e aumenta o desconforto do doente devido à necessidade de maior insuflação de ar. Verifica-se ainda um aumento do risco do procedimento, uma diminuição da deteção de lesões, uma necessidade de realização de controlos mais frequentes e consequentemente um aumento dos find more custos em cuidados de saúde1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. O método ideal de preparação deveria teoricamente eliminar todo o conteúdo fecal do cólon, permitindo uma ótima visualização da mucosa sem causar riscos

nem desconforto para o doente. A escolha do produto de limpeza depende da eficácia, Thiamet G da facilidade de administração, dos efeitos adversos, da tolerância e do preço2, 7 and 8. As soluções mais frequentemente utilizadas são o polietilenoglicol (solução isosmótica) e os compostos de fosfato de sódio, picossulfato de sódio ou citrato de magnésio (soluções hiperosmóticas)2. As soluções isosmóticas exigem a ingestão de maiores quantidades de fluidos sendo, na maioria dos casos, pior toleradas. No entanto, apresentam uma taxa mais baixa de complicações, tornando-se mais seguras em doentes de risco como os idosos ou insuficientes renais2 and 7. Para além da solução de preparação intestinal, a maioria das sociedades nacionais e internacionais recomenda uma dieta pobre em resíduos nos dias que precedem o exame e uma dieta líquida no dia anterior7 and 9. A intervenção do profissional de saúde consiste na escolha da solução de limpeza mais adequada ao doente e na transmissão de informação suficiente e clara que permita aumentar a colaboração e motivação do mesmo neste processo.

Overall, patients with positive margins (16 5 vs 10 0 mm, p = 0

Overall, patients with positive margins (16.5 vs. 10.0 mm, p = 0.04) and the pooled close/positive-margin (11.0 vs. 10.0 mm, p = 0.03) patients had larger median tumor sizes than the negative-margin cohort. Also, patients with close (13.6 vs. 9.2%, p = 0.01) or positive (15.4% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.03) margins were more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER)

negative than the margin-negative JAK inhibitor review cohort. Positive-margin patients were more likely to be node positive as well (15.4% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.01). With regards to the invasive-only patients, those with positive margins were more likely to be node positive (18.2% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.02) than margin-negative patients. No differences in patient characteristics by margin

status were noted Epigenetics inhibitor when evaluating patients with pure DCIS, albeit with smaller numbers of patients. Of note, no differences in the rates of systemic therapy usage were noted for all patients. Clinical outcomes by margin status and disease histology are presented in Table 4. Overall, no statistically significant difference in the 6-year rate of IBTR was noted for patients with close margins compared with that of negative-margin patients (8.7% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.10) despite a nearly twofold increase. Positive-margin patients had a nonsignificant increase in IBTR (14.3% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.41); however, when both groups were pooled, a trend toward higher rates of IBTR in patients with involved margins was noted (9.3% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.07). Statistically significant increases in EFs were noted for close (6.8% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.04) and close/positive-margin (7.7% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02) patients compared with negative-margin patients; however, no differences in TR/MM were noted. No differences emerged

in the rates of regional nodal failure, distant metastases, disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival, or overall survival by margin status in the entire cohort. When examining invasive-only patients, no significant differences in the rates of IBTR were noted for patients with positive margins (20.0% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.30), those with close margins Adenylyl cyclase (6.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.62), or those with pooled close/positive margins (7.5% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.43). Furthermore, no differences emerged in the rates of regional nodal failure, distant metastases, DFS, cause-specific survival, or overall survival by margin status for invasive-only patients. When evaluating patients with DCIS only, there was a statistically significant increase in IBTR when patients had close margins (17.6% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.004) and when close and positive margins were pooled (15.7% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.01). This significant increase in IBTR led to a nonsignificant reduction in DFS in patients with noninvasive disease who had close surgical margins (82.4% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.17). Statistically significant increases in EFs were noted for close-margin (17.6% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.

There were no conversions to laparoscopy and all procedures were

There were no conversions to laparoscopy and all procedures were completed successfully. Two patients required endoscopy in the early postoperative

period: self-limited hematemesis (from a submucosal GSK2118436 chemical structure tunnel) and radiologic evidence of leakage at the mucosotomy site (repaired with placement of additional clips on postoperative day 1). Patients were routinely discharged on postoperative day one (except 4 who were discharged on day 2). The median scores for solid dysphagia among the achalasia and nutcracker patients significantly improved from 4 (all meals) preoperatively to 0 (never) at 6 months. Similarly, 10 of these patients complained of either daily or continuous chest pain. ABT-888 solubility dmso At 6 months, they reported only rare or no chest pain. One DES patient reported resolution of daily preoperative dysphagia and chest pain (follow-up 9 months). Three DES patients (follow-up 8-13 months) reported decreases in the frequency of dysphagia or chest pain (daily to occasional). One of these patients underwent two postoperative endoscopic dilations for

chest pain and dysphagia. DES patients demonstrated slow improvement in their symptoms. In contrast, the dysphagia relief among the achalasia and nutcracker patients was immediate and sustained. The senior author was the primary surgeon in the first 16 patients. Two trainees

(fellows) participated in cases 17 to 24, where they performed increasing elements of the procedure under supervision. Cases 25 to 40 PLEKHB2 were primarily performed by 1 of the 2 fellows. Hence, when the 40 consecutive procedures were divided into 5 groups of 8 patients, the first and second groups were primarily performed by the attending physician, the third group was a transition period, and the fourth and fifth groups were primarily performed by the fellow. The means (± SD) of the LOP per centimeter myotomy were as follows: 16 ± 4 minutes, 17 ± 5 minutes, 13 ± 3 minutes, 15 ± 2 minutes, and 13 ± 4 minutes. The number of inadvertent mucosotomy also decreased with increasing experience in the consecutive 5 groups: 8, 6, 4, 0, and 1 (Table 1).Figure 1 and Figure 2 depict the decreasing trend in the LOP per centimeter myotomy and the number of mucosotomy. The POEM procedure represents a focused, direct approach to a selective myotomy of the inner circular layer of the esophagus and the GEJ.11 It avoids body wall trauma and minimizes the disruption of the normal anatomical architecture of the GEJ. It may represent an advance over current medical or surgical treatments for achalasia and other spastic disorders of the LES and esophageal body.

The approach presented here provides several advantages: first, t

The approach presented here provides several advantages: first, the use of monkeys additionally allows the recording of single neurons (cmp. Maldonado et al., 2008). Second, it presents a tool to classify fixations that enables to relate neuronal activity to natural behavior (see Discussion), without making assumptions find more about the meaning

of the images to the observer. Third, our approach can be generalized to eye movements of humans. We find that in most cases, the subjective ROIs match well both the objects in the scene and the ROIs defined by their saliency maps. Exceptions are scenes containing human or primate faces. We made use of a Markov chain (MC) analysis to investigate the sequences of visited ROIs (assumed to be the states of a random walk) and extract their probabilities. Our approach of the scanpath analysis differs from Feng (2006) (reading task experiment), Van Der Lans et al. (2008) (search task), and Simola et al. (2008) (word search task) in that we feed the MC algorithm with the extracted ROIs. Such an investigation of fixation sequences shows that during free viewing of natural scenes a fixation is most likely to occur within the same ROI where the previous fixation occurred, Selleck GDC 0199 suggesting that local object exploration is executed before directing the focus to a new ROI. Three monkeys (D, M, and S) participated in

an electro-physiological experiment over many sessions, in which they were exposed to different natural images for 3–5 s, interleaved ifenprodil with blank screens or blank screens with a fixation spot (see Fig. 1, and Section 4.1 for details). Their eye movements were recorded with a scleral search coil, while the animals were allowed to freely explore the monitor screen with self-initiated eye movements (see Fig. 2A as an example of one image overlaid by an exemplary scanpath and the respective

fixations). An automatic algorithm extracted the fixations and saccades performed by the monkeys from the vertical and horizontal eye movements (Fig. 2B, see Section 4.2. for details), and derived the distributions of fixation and saccade durations (Figs. 2C, D). The distributions of fixation durations derived from all sessions and for all images (Fig. 2C) of monkeys D and M have very similar shapes, the mean fixation durations being 310 ms and 240 ms, respectively. These values correspond well to average fixation durations reported for humans during exploration of natural scenes, found to be in the range between 260 and 330 ms (Castelhano and Henderson, 2007 and Ossandon et al., 2010). However, the distribution of fixation durations of monkey S (Fig. 2C, red) differs from the distributions of the two other monkeys: it is broader, less skewed and has a heavy tail, and exhibits a much longer mean fixation duration (420 ms).