The term PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) is increasingly used for this innate immunity . Recognition by the plant employs transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Unfortunately, so far there are only a few detailed model systems that describe MAMP, PRR, and perception-induced signaling . An example for such a well-characterized PTI is the recognition of bacterial flagellin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In older
literature, molecules which evoke defense-related plant reactions and which hence are assumed to be involved in the recognition process of non-host plants were termed elicitors . Plant defense upon pathogen recognition https://www.selleckchem.com/products/p5091-p005091.html typically includes the SCH727965 induction of a so-called hypersensitive response (HR), which leads to the resistance of the non-host plants and which includes a rapid local generation of superoxide, the so-called oxidative burst, and a programmed cell death . Examples for MAMPs are the harpin proteins from Erwinia[5, 6], Pictilisib nmr Xanthomonas[7, 8], or Pseudomonas, syringolides from Pseudomonas syringae or lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), characteristic glycoconjugate cell envelope constituents of Gram-negative
bacteria . In addition to monitoring for pathogen-derived MAMPs, plants recognize endogenous molecules that are released upon injury or infection as alarm signals. Such molecules are termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) . Often DAMPs are generated by lytic enzymes of attacking pathogens when they breach structural barriers of plant tissues, in particular plant cell walls. DAMPs include oligosaccharide fragments, peptides resulting from protein degradation , and reactive oxygen species selleck screening library (ROS) . Plants can amplify the response to DAMPs by inducing specific enzymes that generate additional similar
DAMP molecules . Examples for DAMPs known for a long time are oligogalacturonides (OGAs) that are released by fungal pectate lyases [16–18] from plant cell walls. Among the plant pathogenic bacteria, so far only Erwinia carotovora has been reported to induce the generation of a DAMP , which also turned out to be an OGA . Upon the discovery of the egg box conformation of OGA dimers , the A. thaliana wall-associated kinase 1 (WAK1) was identified as a candidate for a PRR that specifically recognizes OGAs. While the receptor-like kinase WAK2 was shown to be involved in pectin-dependent signaling , a recent domain-swap experiment confirmed the identification of WAK1 as OGA receptor , thereby turning the plant side of OGA perception into a comparably complete model of DAMP recognition. Xanthomonas species are members of the γ subdivision of the Gram-negative Proteobacteria, which have adopted a plant-associated and usually plant pathogenic lifestyle [24, 25]. Xanthomonas campestris pv.